首页 » 噬菌体phiX174 BACTERIOPHAGE

噬菌体phiX174 BACTERIOPHAGE

  • 价  格:¥9820
  • 货  号:phiX174
  • 产  地:北京
点击询问我要采购
 竭诚为您服务!
BioVector NTCC典型培养物保藏中心
联系人:Dr.Xu, Biovector NTCC Inc.点击这里给我发消息

电话:+86-010-53513060. 工作QQ:1843439339

邮件:Biovector@163.com

手机:18901268599

地址:北京

已注册
 

BACTERIOPHAGE


Bacteriophages are viruses that parasitize bacteria. Bacteriophages were jointly discovered by Frederick

Twort (1915) in England and by Felix d'Herelle (1917) at the Pasteur Institute in France. Felix d'Herelle

coined the term “Bacteriophage”. Bacteriophage means to eat bacteria, and are called so because

virulent bacteriophage can cause the compete lysis of a susceptible bacterial culture. They are commonly

referred as “phage”. Phages are obligate intracellular parasites that multiply inside bacteria by making

use of some or all of the host biosynthetic machinery. They occur widely in nature and can readily be

isolated from feces and sewage. There are at least 12 distinct groups of bacteriophages, which are very

diverse structurally and genetically.


Examples of phages:

¾ T-even phages such as T2, T4 and T6 that infect E.coli

¾ Temperate phages such as lambda and mu

¾ Spherical phages with single stranded DNA such as PhiX174

¾ Filamentous phages with single stranded DNA such as M13

¾ RNA phages such as Qbeta


Composition:

Depending upon the phage, the nucleic acid can be either DNA or RNA but not both. The nucleic acids of

phages often contain unusual or modified bases, which protect phage nucleic acid from nucleases that

break down host nucleic acids during phage infection. Simple phages may have only 3-5 genes while

complex phages may have over 100 genes. Certain phages are known have single stranded DNA as

their nucleic acid.


Morphology:

Most phages range in size from 24-200 nm in

length. T4 is among the largest phages; it is

approximately 200 nm long and 80-100 nm wide. All

phages contain a head structure, which can vary in

size and shape. Some are icosahedral (20 sides)

others are filamentous.

The head encloses nucleic acid and acts as the

protective covering. Some phages have tails

attached to the phage head. The tail is a hollow tube

through which the nucleic acid passes during

infection. T4 tail is surrounded by a contractile

sheath, which contracts during infection of the

bacterium. At the end of the tail, phages like T4

have a base plate and one or more tail fibers

attached to it.

The base plate and tail fibers are involved in the

binding of the phage to the bacterial cell. Not all

phages have base plates and tail fibers.




© Sridhar Rao P.N (www.microrao.com)

Life cycle:


Adsorption: The first step in the infection process is the adsorption of the phage to the bacterial cell. This

step is mediated by the tail fibers or by some analogous structure on those phages that lack tail fibers.

Phages attach to specific receptors on the bacterial cell such as proteins on the outer surface of the

bacterium, LPS, pili, and lipoprotein. This process is reversible. One or more of the components of the

base plate mediates irreversible binding of phage to a bacterium.


Penetration: The irreversible binding of the phage to the bacterium results in the contraction of the sheath

(for those phages which have a sheath) and the hollow tail fiber is pushed through the bacterial envelope.

Some phages have enzymes that digest various components of the bacterial envelope. Nucleic acid from

the head passes through the hollow tail and enters the bacterial cell. The remainder of the phage remains

on the outside of the bacterium as “ghost”. Even a non-susceptible bacterium can be artificially infected

by injecting phage DNA by a process known as transfection.



Depending on the life cycle, phages can either by lytic (virulent) or lysogenic (temperate). While lytic

phages kill the cells they infect, temperate phages establish a persistent infection of the cell without killing

it. In lytic cycle the subsequent steps are synthesis of phage components, assembly, maturation and

release.



© Sridhar Rao P.N (www.microrao.com)

Lytic cycle:

Lytic or virulent phages are phages, which multiply in bacteria and kill the cell by lysis at the end of the

life cycle. Soon after the nucleic acid is injected, the phage cycle is said to be in eclipse period. During

the eclipse phase, no infectious phage particles can be found either inside or outside the bacterial cell.

Eclipse phase represents the interval between the entry of phage nucleic acid into bacterial cell and

release of mature phage from the infected cell. This phase is devoted to synthesis of phage components

and their assembly into mature phage particles.


The phage nucleic acid takes over the host biosynthetic machinery and phage specified m-RNA's and

proteins are made. In some cases the early phage proteins actually degrade the host chromosome.

Structural proteins (head, tail) that comprise the phage as well as the proteins needed for lysis of the

bacterial cell are separately synthesized. Nucleic acid is then packaged inside the head and then tail is

added to the head. The assembly of phage components into mature infective phage particle is known as

maturation. In Lysis and Release Phase the bacteria begin to lyse due to the accumulation of the phage

lysis protein and intracellular phage are released into the medium. It is believed that phage enzymes

weaken the cell wall of bacteria. The number of particles released per infected bacteria may be as high

as 1000. The average yield of phages per infected bacterial cell is known as burst size.


Lysogenic cycle:

Lysogenic or temperate phages are those that can either multiply via the lytic cycle or enter a dormant

state in the cell. In most cases the phage DNA actually integrates into the host chromosome and is

replicated along with the host chromosome and passed on to the daughter cells. This integrated state of

phage DNA is termed prophage. This process is known as lysogeny and the bacteria harboring prophage

are called lysogenic bacteria. Since the prophage contains genes, it can confer new properties to the

bacteria. When a cell becomes lysogenized, occasionally extra genes carried by the phage get

expressed in the cell. These genes can change the properties of the bacterial cell. This process is known

as lysogenic conversion or phage conversion.


Significance of lysogenic conversion includes:

• Lysogenic phages have been shown to carry genes that can modify the Salmonella O antigen.

• Toxin production by Corynebacterium diphtheriae is mediated by a gene carried by a beta phage.

Only those strains that have been converted by lysogeny are pathogenic.

• Clostridium botulinum, a causative agent of food poisoning, makes several different toxins, 2 of

which are actually encoded by prophage genomes.

• Lysogenised bacteria are resistant to superinfection by same or related phages. This is known as

superinfection immunity.


The lysogenic state of a bacterium can get terminated anytime when it exposed to adverse conditions.

This process is called induction. Conditions that favor the termination of the lysogenic state include:

desiccation, exposure to UV or ionizing radiation, exposure to mutagenic chemicals, etc. The separated

phage DNA then initiates lytic cycle resulting in cell lysis and releases of phages. Such phages are then

capable of infecting new susceptible cells and render them lysogenic.


Phage Genetics:

The transfer of genetic elements from one bacterium to another by a bacteriophage is termed as

transduction. Transduction can be generalized or specialized. The generalized transduction is seen in

lytic cycle where segments of bacterial DNA are packaged inside phage capsid instead of phage DNA.

When such phages infect new bacterial cells, the bacterial DNA is injected inside. This piece of DNA may

then transfer genes to the host chromosome by recombination. Any bacterial gene may be transferred in

generalized transduction. Generalized transduction is usually seen in temperate phages that undergo

lytic cycle. Only those genes that are adjacent to the prophage are transferred in specialized

transduction.



© Sridhar Rao P.N (www.microrao.com)

Significance of bacteriophages:

o Transduction is responsible for transfer of drug resistance, especially in Staphylococci

o Lysogenic conversion is responsible for acquisition of new characteristics

o Random insertion into bacterial chromosome can induce insertional mutation

o Epidemiological typing of bacteria (phage typing)

o Lambda phage is a model system for the study of latent infection of mammalian cells by

retroviruses

o Phages are used extensively in genetic engineering where they serve as cloning vectors.

o Libraries of genes and monoclonal antibodies are maintained in phages

o They are responsible for natural removal of bacteria from water bodies



Last edited on June 2006


您正在向 biovector.net  发送关于产品 噬菌体phiX174 BACTERIOPHAGE 的询问

点击“立即发送”后,我们将在1个工作日内与您取得联系。